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Arnold School of Public Health

Meiobenthic Ecology and Estuarine Ecotoxicology Laboratory

Welcome to the Chandler Laboratory! 

Students and post-doctoral associates in the Chandler Lab conduct research in estuarine ecotoxicology, reproductive/endocrine disruption in invertebrates (principally crustaceans), effects of emerging contaminants such as nanomaterials and pharmaceuticals on benthos, sediment biogeochemistry and toxicant bioavailability, deep-sea foraminiferal culture linked to questions in paleoceanography and climate change, and genetic/molecular-scale responses of crustaceans to toxic chemicals. We have two "pet" organismal groups that we work with - harpacticoid copepods and benthic foraminifera - and both taxa are important members of the meiobenthos (i.e., highly abundant invertebrates less than 1-mm in size). Meiobenthos occur in all ocean sediments and often form a critical trophic link to larger predators, and they are also important in the mineralization of sediment carbon via their feeding on bacteria/diatoms/protists. We have several unique high-density culturing facilities for toxicological and carbonate-system experiments with these minute taxa. Our research has been funded continuously since 1999 by the NSF, EPA and NOAA. Several student assistantships are available on a competitive basis.


Group Members

G. Thomas Chandler
Graduate Students:
Jessica K. Blanks
Ryan Templeton  
Will W. Klauber

Kate Washburn




Templeton, R.C., P.L. Ferguson, K.M. Washburn, W.A. Scrivens and G.T. Chandler. 2006. Lifecycle effects of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on an estuarine meiobenthic copepod.  Environmental Science and Technology, Special Issue on Emerging Contaminants.

Griffitt, R.J., G.T. Chandler, T.W. Greig and J.M. Quattro. 2006. Cathepsin B and glutathione peroxidase show differing transcriptional responses in the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, following exposure to three xenobiotics.  Environmental Science and Technology 40:3640-3645.

Bejarano, A.C., G.T. Chandler, L.He, T.L. Cary and J.L. Ferry. 2006.  Risk assessment of the NIST petroleum crude oil standard water accommodated fraction (WAF):  Further application of a copepod-based full life-cycle bioassay.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25:1953-1960.

Bejarano, A.C., G.T. Chandler, L. He, and B.C. Coull. 2006. Individual to population effects of South Louisiana crude-oil water hydrocarbon accommodated fraction (WAF) on a marine meiobenthic copepod. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 332:49-59.

Hintz, C.J., T.J. Shaw, G.T. Chandler, J.M. Bernhard, D.C. McCorkle, and J.K. Blanks.  2006.  Trace/minor-element:calcium ratios in cultured benthic foraminifera, Part I:  Interspecies differences.  Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 70:1952-1963.

Hintz, C.J., T.J. Shaw, G.T. Chandler, J.M. Bernhard, D.C. McCorkle, and J.K. Blanks.  2006.  Trace/minor-element:calcium ratios in cultured benthic foraminifera, Part II:  Ontogenetic variation.  Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 70:1964-1976.

Bejarano, A.C., G. T. Chandler and A.W. Decho. 2005. Influence of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) on acute and chronic toxicity of the pesticides chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos and fipronil on the meiobentic estuarine copepod Amphiascus tenuiremis.  J. Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 321:43-57.

Harmon, S.M., J.K. King, J.B. Gladden, G.T. Chandler and L.A. Newman.  2005.  Mercury body burdens in Gambusia holbrooki and Erimyzon sucetta in a wetland mesocosm amended with sulfate. Chemosphere 59:227-233. 

Bejarano, A.C., P.L. Pennington, M.E. DeLorenzo and G. T. Chandler. 2005. Atrazine effects on meiobenthic assemblages of a modular estuarine mesocosm.  Marine Pollution Bulletin 50:1398-1404.

Chandler, G.T., T.L. Cary, A.C. Bejarano, J.Pender and J.L. Ferry. 2004. Population consequences of fipronil and degradates to copepods at field concentrations: an integration of lifecycle testing with Leslie-matrix population modeling. Environmental Science and Technology 38:6407-6414.

Chandler, G.T.  2004. Standard Guide for Conducting Renewal Microplate-Based Life-Cycle Toxicity Tests with a Marine Meiobenthic Copepod.  In: (S.J. Bailey et al., eds.) ASTM E 2317-04, American Society for Testing and Materials, W. Conshohocken, PA, USA, 15 pp.

Bejarano, A.C., Maruya K.A., and Chandler G.T.  2004.  Toxicity assessment of sediments associated with various land-uses in coastal South Carolina, USA, using a meiobenthic copepod bioassay.  Marine Pollution Bulletin 49:23-32.

Hintz, C.J., G.T. Chandler, J.M. Bernhard, D.C. McCorkle, S.M. Havach, J.K. Blanks and T.J. Shaw. 2004. A physicochemically-constrained seawater culturing system for production of benthic foraminifera.  Limnology and Oceanography - Methods 2:160-170.

Chandler, G.T. and D.C. Volz. 2004. Semi-quantitative confocal laser scanning microscopy applied to marine invertebrate ecotoxicology.  Marine Biotechnology 6:128-137.

Chandler, G.T., T.L. Cary, D.C. Volz, S.S. Walse, J.L. Ferry, and S.L. Klosterhaus. 2004. Fipronil effects on copepod development, fertility, and reproduction: A rapid life-cycle assay in 96-well microplate format. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23:117-124. 

Bejarano, A.C., K.A. Maruya and G.T. Chandler. 2004. Toxicity assessment of sediments associated with various land uses in coastal South Carolina, USA, using a meiobenthic copepod bioassay. Marine Pollution Bulletin 49:23-32.

Bernhard, J.M., J.K. Blanks, C.J. Hintz and G.T. Chandler. 2004. Use of the fluorescent calcite marker calcein to label foraminiferal tests. J. Foraminiferal Research 34:96-101.

Cary, T.L., G.T. Chandler, D.C. Volz, S.S. Walse, and J.L. Ferry. 2004  Fipronil induces male infertility in the meiobenthic harpacticoid copepod, Amphiascus tenuiremis. Environmental Science and Technology 39:522-528.

Harmon, S.M., J.K. King, J.B. Gladden, G.T. Chandler, and L.A. Newman. 2004. Methylmercury formation in a wetland mesocosm amended with sulfate.  Environmental Science and Technology 38:650-656.

Vo, M., D.E. Porter, G.T. Chandler, H. Kelsey, S.P. Walker and B.E. Jones.  2004. Assessing photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urbanized estuary.  Ecology and Society 9:1195-1249.

Volz, D.C., and G.T. Chandler. 2004. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for lipovitellin quantification in copepods: a screening tool for endocrine and reproductive toxicity.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23:298-305. 

Klosterhaus, S.L., L.M. DiPinto and G.T. Chandler. 2003. A comparative assessment of Azinphosmethyl bioaccumulation and toxicity in two estuarine meiobenthic harpacticoid copepods.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22: 2960–2968.

Bejarano, A.C. and G.T. Chandler. 2003. Reproductive and developmental effects of atrazine on the estuarine meiobenthic copepod, Amphiascus tenuiremis.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22:3009-3016.

Bejarano A.C., A.Widenfalk, A.W. Decho and G.T. Chandler. 2003. Bioavailability of the organophosphorous insecticide chlorpyrifos to the suspension-feeding bivalve, Mercenaria mercenaria, following exposure to dissolved and particulate matter. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22:2100-2105.

Block, D.S., A.C. Bejarano and G.T. Chandler. 2003. Ecdysteroid distribution through various life-stages of the meiobenthic harpacticoid copepod, Amphiascus tenuiremis, and the benthic estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. General and Comparative Endocrinology 132:151-160.

Scott, G.I., M.H. Fulton, J.D. Daugomah, A.K. Leight, E.F. Wirth, G.T. Chandler and D. Porter. 2003. Agricultural and urban NPS runoff effects on grass shrimp population life history dynamics. Integrative and Comparative Biology 43:894-904.

Harmon, S.M., W.L. Specht and G.T. Chandler. 2003. A comparison of the daphniidsCeriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia ambigua for their utilization in routine toxicity testing in the southeastern United States. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 45:79-85.

Klosterhaus, S.L., P.L. Ferguson and G.T. Chandler. 2002. PAH bioaccumulation by meiobenthic copepods (Crustacea) inhabiting a US EPA Superfund site: Techniques for micromass body burden and total lipid analysis. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21:2331-2337.

Volz, D.C., T. Kawaguchi and G.T. Chandler. 2002. Purification and characterization of the common yolk protein, vitellin, from the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.  Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology 32: 103-119.

Schizas, N.V., B.C. Coull, G.T. Chandler and J.M. Quattro. 2002. Sympatry of distinct mitochondrial DNA lineages in a copepod inhabiting estuarine creeks in the southeastern USA.  Marine Biology 140:585-594.

Volz, D.C., E.F. Wirth, M.H. Fulton, G.I. Scott, D.S. Block and G.T. Chandler. 2002. Endocrine-mediated effects of UV-A irradiation on grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) reproduction. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (C) 133:419-434.

Scott GI, Fulton MH, Wirth EF, Chandler GT, Key PB, Daugomah JW, et al. 2002. Toxicological studies in tropical ecosystems: An ecotoxicological risk assessment of pesticide runoff in South Florida estuarine ecosystems. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50:4400-4408.

Staton, J.L., N.V. Schizas, S.L. Klosterhaus, R.J. Griffitt, G.T. Chandler and B.C. Coull.  2002. Effect of salinity variation and pesticide exposure on an estuarine harpacticoid copepod, Microarthridion littorale (Poppe), in the southeastern US.  J. Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology 278:101-110.

Chandler, G.T. and A.S. Green. 2001. Development-stage specific life-cycle bioassay for assessment of sediment-associated toxicant effects on benthic copepod production.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20:171-178.

Schizas, N.V., G.T. Chandler, B.C. Coull and J.M. Quattro. 2001.  Differential survival of three mitochondrial lineages of a marine  benthic copepod exposed to a pesticide mixture. Environmental Science and Technology 35:535-538.

Coull, B.C. and G.T. Chandler.  2001. Benthos: The Meiobenthos, pg.212-222. In: Steele, J.H., S.A. Thorpe and K.K. Turekian (eds.),  Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, Academic Press, London, 3400 pp.

Schlekat, C.E., A.W. Decho, and G.T. Chandler.  2000.  Bioavailability of particle-associated silver, cadmium, and zinc to the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus through dietary ingestion. Limnology and Oceanography 45:11-21.

Schlekat, C.E., A.W. Decho and G.T. Chandler. 1999. Dietary assimilation of cadmium associated with bacterial exopolymer sediment coatings by the estuarine amphipodLeptocheirus plumulosus: Effects of Cd concentration and salinity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 183: 205-216.

Matthiessen, P., T. Reynoldson, Z. Billinghurst, D.W. Brassard, G.T. Chandler, I.M. Davies, T. Horiguchi, D.R. Mount, J.Oehlmann, T.G. Pottinger, P.K. Sibley, H.M. Thompson, A.D. Vethaak. 1999.  Field assessment for endocrine disruption in invertebrates, pp. 199-257. In: DeFur, P.L., M.Crane, C. Ingersoll and L. Tatterfield (eds.), Endocrine Disruption in Invertebrates: Endocrinology, Testing and Assessment.  SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, 303 pp.

Vernberg, F.J., W.B. Vernberg, D.E. Porter, G.T. Chandler, H.N. McKellar, G. Scott, T. Siewicki, M. Fulton, D. Bushek and D. Tufford. 1999.  Coastal development impact on land-coastal waters. pp. 613-622. In: Ozhan, E. (ed.), Land-Ocean Interactions: Managing Coastal Ecosystems, Nurol Press, Ankara, Turkey, 1933 pp. (Editorially Reviewed).

Kovatch, C.E., G.T. Chandler and B.C. Coull.1999. Utility of a full life-cycle bioassay approach with meiobenthic copepods for assessment of sediment-associated contaminant mixtures. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38:692-701.

Schizas, N.V., G.T. Street, B.C. Coull, G.T. Chandler and J.M. Quattro. 1999. Molecular population structure of the marine harpacticoid copepod Microarthridion littorale along the Southeastern and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the United States. Marine Biology 135:399-405.

Scott, G.I., M.H. Fulton, D.W. Moore, E.F. Wirth, G.T. Chandler, P.B. Key, J.W. Daugomah,E.D. Strozier et al. 1999.  Assessment of risk reduction strategies for the management of agricultural nonpoint source pesticide runoff in estuarine ecosystems.  Toxicol. Industrial Health 15:200-213.

Street, G.T., B.C. Coull, G.T. Chandler and D.M. Sanger. 1998. Predation on meiofauna by juvenile spot (Leiostomus xanthurus: Pisces) in contaminated sediments from Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 170:261-268.

Wilson-Finelli, A.L., G.T. Chandler and H.J. Spero. 1998. Stable isotope behavior in paleoceanographically important benthic foraminifera: Results from microcosm culture experiments. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 28:52-60.

Wirth, E.F., M.H. Fulton, G.T. Chandler, P.B. Key and G.I. Scott. (1998). Toxicity of sediment-associated PAHs to the   estuarine crustaceans Palaemonetes pugio and Amphiascus tenuiremis. Bull. Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 61:637-644.

Ferguson, P.L. and G.T. Chandler. 1998. A laboratory and field comparison of sediment PAH bioaccumulation by the cosmopolitan estuarine polychaete Streblospio benedicti (Webster). Journal of Marine Environmental Research 45:387-403.

Schlekat, C.E., A.W. Decho and G.T. Chandler. 1998. Sorption of cadmium to bacterial extracellular polymeric sediment coatings under estuarine conditions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17:1867-1874.

Chandler, G.T., M.R. Shipp and  T.L. Donelan. 1997. Bioaccumulation and larval settlement effects of sediment-associated  polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons on the estuarine polychaete, Streblospio benedicti. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology 213:95-110.

Chandler, G.T., B.C. Coull, N.V. Schizas and T.L. Donelan. 1997. A culture-based assessment of chlorpyrifos effects on multiple meiobenthic copepods using microcosms of intact estuarine sediments. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 16: 2339-2346.

Schizas, N.V., G.T. Street, B.C. Coull, G.T. Chandler and J.M. Quattro. 1997. An efficient DNA extraction method for   small metazoans. Molecular Marine Biology & Biotechnology 6:383-385.

Green, A.S. and G.T. Chandler. 1996. Life-table evaluation of sediment-associated chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity to the benthic copepod, Amphiascus tenuiremis. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 31:77-83.

Chandler, G.T. and A.S. Green. 1996. A 14-day harpacticoid copepod reproduction bioassay for laboratory and field contaminated muddy sediments. In: G. Ostrander (ed.), New Techniques in Aquatic Toxicology, Lewis Publ.Inc., pp.23-39.

Chandler, G.T., D.F. Williams, H.J. Spero and G. Xiaodong. 1996. Sediment microhabitats and stable isotope disequilibria phenomena in microcosm cultured benthic foraminiferal calcite.Limnology & Oceanography 41:680-688.

Green, A.S., G.T. Chandler and W.W. Piegorsch. 1996. Life-stage specific toxicity of sediment-associated chlorpyrifos to a marine infaunal copepod. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15:1182-1188.

D'Andrea, A.F., S.E. Stancyk and G.T. Chandler. 1996. Sublethal effects of cadmium on arm regeneration in the burrowing brittlestar, Microphiopholis gracillima (Stimpson) (Echinodermata:Ophiuroidea). Ecotoxicology 5:115-133.

Fulton, M.H., G.T. Chandler and G.I. Scott. 1996. Urbanization effects on the fauna of a southeastern U.S.A. bar-built estuary. In: F.J. Vernberg & W.B. Vernberg (eds.),Sustainable Development in the Southeastern Coastal Zone, Vol. 22: Belle W. Baruch Library in Marine Science, No. 20, pp. 477-505.

Green, A.S., G.T. Chandler and B.C. Coull. 1995. Age-specific survival analysis of an infaunal meiobenthic harpacticoid copepod, Amphiascus tenuiremis. Marine Ecol. Progress Ser. 15:29-40.

Wirth, E.F., G.T. Chandler, L.M. DiPinto and T.F. Bidleman. 1994. Accumulation of PCB's from sediment by marine benthic copepods using a novel micro-extraction technique. Environmental Science and Technology 28:1609-1614.

Green, A.S. and G.T. Chandler. 1994. Meiofaunal bioturbation effects on the partitioning of sediment-associated cadmium. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 180:59-70.

Chandler, G.T., B.C. Coull and J.C. Davis. 1994. Sediment and aqueous-phase fenvalerate effects on meiobenthos:  Implications for sediment quality criteria development. Marine Environmental Research 37:313-327.

Green, A.S. G.T. Chandler and E.R. Blood. 1993. Aqueous, porewater and sediment phase cadmium: Toxicity relationships for a meiobenthic copepod. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12:1497-1506.

DiPinto, L., B.C. Coull and G.T. Chandler. 1993. Lethal and sublethal effects of the sediment-associated PCB Aroclor 1254 on a meiobenthic copepod. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12:1909-1918.

Strawbridge, S.S., B.C. Coull and G.T. Chandler. 1992. Population growth of a meiobenthic copepod under exposure to the sediment-associated pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 23:295-300.

Coull, B.C. and G.T. Chandler. 1992. Pollution and meiofauna: Field, laboratory and mesocosm studies. Oceanography and   Marine Biology Annual Reviews 30:191-271.

Hiser, L.M., G.T. Chandler and N. Healy-Williams. 1992. Morphologic variability in an environmentally-controlled clonal culture of Ammonia beccarii.  Proc. Sixth National Conference on Undergraduate Research, Vol. 3:24-29.

Chandler, G.T. and G.I. Scott. 1991. Effects of sediment-bound endosulfan on survivorship, reproduction and larval colonization of meiobenthic copepods and polychaetes. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 10:375-382.

Chandler, G.T. 1990. Effects of sediment-bound residues of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate on survival and reproduction of meiobenthic harpacticoid copepods. Marine Environmental Research 29:65-76.

Chandler, G.T. 1989. Foraminifera may structure meiobenthic communities. Oecologia 81:354-360.

Chandler, G.T., T.C. Shirley and J.W. Fleeger. 1988. The tom-tom corer: a new design of the Kajak corer for use in meiofauna sampling. Hydrobiologia 169:129-134.

Chandler, G.T. and J.W. Fleeger. 1987. Facilitative and inhibitory interactions among estuarine meiobenthic harpacticoid copepods. Ecology 68(6):1906-1919.

Chandler, G.T. 1986. High density culture of meiobenthic harpacticoid copepods within a muddy sediment substrate. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43:53-59.

Chandler, G.T. and J.W. Fleeger. 1984. Tube-building by a marine meiobenthic harpacticoid copepod. Marine Biology 82:15-19.

Fleeger, J.W., G.T. Chandler, F.E. Phillips and G.R. Fitzhugh. 1984. The effects of tidal currents on meiofauna densities in vegetated salt marsh sediments. Marine Ecol. Progress Series 11:257-264.

Fleeger, J.W. and G.T. Chandler. 1983. Meiofauna responses to an experimental oil spill in a Louisiana salt marsh. Marine Ecology Progress Series 11:257-264.  

Chandler, G.T. and J.W. Fleeger. 1983. Meiofaunal colonization of azoic estuarine sediments in Louisiana: Mechanisms of dispersal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 69:175-188.




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